Textbook Analysis (Tugas Kuliah FKIP Bhs Inggris)

textbook-analysis

Textbook analysis ini merupakan hasil karya dari salah seorang teman saya di FKIP UNMAS Mahasaraswati. Texbook yang di analisis berjudul Baasa Inggris – When English Rings the Bell. Perlu diingat, bahwa ini bukanlah hasil kerja seorang profesional, masih banyak hal yang perlu ditingkatkan untuk mencapai hasil yang akurat. Jika ada saran dan kritik mohon dilayangkan ke desar (at) sariyanta.com atau bisa langsung di kotak komen.

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Grammar (Tugas Kuliah FKIP Bahasa Inggris – Seminar on TEFL)

The Grammar School

Seminar on Teaching English as a Foreign Language

GRAMMAR

Definition

The definition of grammar varies from one linguist expert to another. Some describe grammar in a very simple way, others see it in a more complex way. Some focus on the language, other focus on the user. Here are some definitions of grammar by experts;

According to Nelson (2001), grammar is the science of how words put together to create sentences.

Oxford Dictionaries define grammar as the way words are combined to construct a correct sentences.

Crystal (2004) describes grammar as the structural foundation of human capability to convey ideas, feelings, or thoughts. The more we can understand grammar, the better we can control the semantic and efficiency of language use. The higher our grammar comprehension is, the easier we can construct accuracy, discover uncertainty, and utilize the affluence of expression available in English.

In summary, we can define grammar as the body of rules which define the structure of expression in languages. Grammar also governs the rule of words (morphology), phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Importance of Teaching Grammar

Ms. Risma on one occasion in our Seminar on TEFL class asked one of us to write “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” This means that if someone knows abundance vocabularies but understands very little grammar, she/he could not express his ideas completely. However, when someone do not know any vocabularies, he/she will not be able to express anything, let alone understanding grammar.

We can agree that students do not want to only able to use English in a little scope, they all want to use English as much as possible, as fluent as possible and as proficient as possible. In order to achieve this, they need to understand grammar.

The final test in Indonesia has fairly high standard. By understanding grammar rules, students can easily pass the test. When a student fail to pass the test, his or her teacher is the one to blame or at least the one who are normally blamed. As teachers, we know that it is very important to teach grammar to students.

The problem is now how to teach grammar in an interesting way so that the students or the learner are able to memorize and more importantly apply the grammar rules on a daily conversation accurately and fluently. This become a problem because many students are reluctant to learn grammar. They are easily get bored in grammar class because grammar rules are taught in isolation.

Mr. Budiarta once stated that grammar should be taught in an integrated and contextual way. He claimed himself to be one of the educators who think that grammar should not become independent subject. It should be integrated with the 4 language skills. Grammar is a tool we use to make logical connections between parts of speech. If one does not understand grammar, they will not have any use of the other 4 language skills.

Deductive and Inductive Approach

Deductive Approach is a conventional approach in teaching grammar where the teacher explains the concept of grammatical structure or rules to the students. This approach can saves time and effective way of teaching grammar in particular situations (Rivers and Temperley 110).  The students will practice the new grammar structure after they have understand it completely.

There are some advantages and disadvantages of deductive approach.

The advantages are:

  • It’s good for good and motivated students who normally are not easily bored.
  • It saves time on explanation.
  • The learner will have confidence to face exam

The disadvantages are:

  • It’s mechanical, meaning that it’s not spontaneous
  • It pays a little attention to meaning and context
  • It isolate the rule to the language use

On the other hand, Inductive Approach is a non-conventional way of teaching grammar rules, where the students discover or realize the rules after they have presented the use of the structure in real language context (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135). The teacher normally start the class by using the grammar rules in context. For example if the rule is simple future tense, the teacher will ask ‘What will you do tomorrow?’ to elicit answers such as: ‘I will learn to play piano’, ‘I will visit my grandmother’. The practice will continue to another use of future until the students realize the rule. At the end of the class, the teacher can present the concept of the grammar rules to reassure that the students understand it well.

Of course as Deductive Approach, Inductive Approach also has advantages and disadvantages.

The advantages are:

  • It encourage critical thinking
  • It motivates less motivated learners
  • It shows the grammar in context

The disadvantages are:

  • It complex and time consuming
  • Some grammar rules are difficult to induct
  • Lack of grammar instruction

Strategies on Learning Grammar

Strategy is a must in order to achieve our goal faster and more accurate. Strategies on learning grammar can be divided into two categories: (1) direct strategy, and (2) indirect strategy.

Direct strategies are strategies which straightly associated with the language learning all of which require mental processing of language. In three different groups of direct strategies (memory, cognitive, compensation) the processing are done differently for different goals. Memory strategy is a strategy in which the learner associates the new grammar rules with images, sound, and applying actions. Cognitive strategy is another strategy which consists of rehearsal, organization, and elaboration. Compensation on the other hand, is a communicative strategy where the learner guesses the meaning of words they don’t know or associate gesture to convey meaning.

Affective, metacognitive, and social strategies are indirect strategies. All three do not directly involve in the language learning. These strategies are helpful for all four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing. In affective strategy, learners lower their anxiety, encourage themselves, and controlling their emotional temperature. Social strategy are done in group where the learners communicate with English by asking questions, cooperating with others, and empathizing others.

Grammar Exercises

Fill in the blank

After learning about the conditional sentence, students are asked to finish unfinished conditional sentence.

Finish the conditional sentence

If I weren’t so busy, I _____________________________________

Martha will be angry if she _________________________________

If he doesn’t lend me some money, I __________________________

Your house would look better if ______________________________

If I had known your address, I _______________________________

Interview

Interview is probably the most favored kind of classroom activity. Not only the students can learn about the grammar rules, they can also practice their speaking skills. After learning about present perfect, students are given a form containing lists of places around the world or cities in their province. The students have to ask each one of their classmates with the present perfect question.

Find someone who

Ask your friend: Have you been to ……..?

Places Name Name Name Name
Nusa Dua        
Goa Lawah        
Besakih        
Kuta        
Tamblang        
Beachwalk        
Padma Beach        

 Jumbled Words

It might be the oldest activities there is in English learning. Students have to rearrange jumbled words to make a grammatically correct sentence. Of course, before doing this, they have to be taught the concept first.

Arrange the words in sentences in the right order.

  1.       wife She not is my
  2.       English University learn at I Mahasaraswati
  3.       nose big got has He
  4.       I speak English can’t I sorry am
  5.       rises The morning every east sun from the

Techniques in Teaching Grammar

1.      Fill in the blank

Fill in the blank has been around for a long time in English teaching. Student are asked to fill the blank space in particular sentence. Depending on the students’ level, the technique can be modified by showing option next to the sentence.

2.      Error Correction

Students are presented grammatically incorrect sentences and are told to correct the sentence. This technique can become very useful if the sentences presented belong from the same paragraph.

3.      Map Drawing

Students listening skill and grammar understanding can be confirmed when they are able to complete the incomplete map they are given. Students have to listen to what the teacher (or recorded audio) instructed and complete the map according to what they have listened.

References

Definition

Google dictionary
gram·mar the whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general, usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflections) and sometimes also phonology and semantics.

Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. And it can help everyone–not only teachers of English, but teachers of anything for all, teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning.

(David Crystal, “In Word and Deed.” TES Teacher, April 30, 2004)

The Importance of Teaching Grammar

With the widespread institution of standards and high-stakes tests, students are expected to recognize and use correct grammar. Educators can no longer afford to assume that students acquire an accurate understanding of formal language structures through reading, writing, and speaking.

Furthermore, they also cannot assume that prescriptive or descriptive approaches, in isolation, are singularly effective. Rather, English and language arts teachers must embrace the notion that grammar instruction, like any other content area, should reflect current pedagogical approaches.

Grammar instruction should be tailor-made to meet the needs of students, and should weave both prescriptive and descriptive practices into relevant, meaningful instruction.

http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/to_teach.phtml

Deductive and Inductive Approach

The deductive approach represents a more traditional style of teaching in that the grammatical structures or rules are dictated to the students first, a more effective and time saving way under certain circumstances, namely monolingual classes- (Rivers and Temperley 110). Thus, the students learn the rule and apply it only after they have been introduced to the rule. For example, if the structure to be presented is present perfect, the teacher would begin the lesson by saying, “Today we are going to learn how to use the present perfect structure”. Then, the rules of the present perfect structure would be outlined and the students would complete exercises, in a number of ways, to practice using the structure. (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135) In this approach, the teacher is the center of the class and is responsible for all of the presentation and explanation of the new material

The inductive approach represents a different style of teaching where the new grammatical structures or rules are presented to the students in a real language context (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135). The students learn the use of the structure through practice of the language in context, and later realize the rules from the practical examples. For example, if the structure to be presented is the comparative form, the teacher would begin the lesson by drawing a figure on the board and saying, “This is Jim. He is tall.” Then, the teacher would draw another taller figure next to the first saying, “This is Bill. He is taller than Jim.” The teacher would then provide many examples using students and items from the classroom, famous people, or anything within the normal daily life of the students, to create an understanding of the use of the structure. The students repeat after the teacher, after each of the different examples, and eventually practice the structures meaningfully in groups or pairs. (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135-136) With this approach, the teacher role is to provide meaningful contexts to encourage demonstration of the rule, while the students evolve the rules from the examples of its use and continued practice (Rivers and Temperley 110).

http://www.teflcertificatecourses.com/tefl-articles/tesol-inductive-deductive-approaches.php

Oxford Webinar: Grammar Foundation with Headway on 27th of February 2013, by Tamaz Lorincz

Strategies on Learning Grammar

Tilfarlioglu, Filiz Yalcin, Ass. Prof.Dr, and Erol Yalcin. “An Analysis of the Relationship Between the Use of Grammar Learning Strategy and Student Achievement at English Preparatory Classes.” Journal of Language and Linguistic Study 1.2 (2005): 155-69. Print.

Techniques in Teaching Grammar

Technique and Principal in Language Teaching

Function of Names in Modern Society (Tugas Kuliah FKIP Bahasa Inggris – Sociolinguistic)

Function of Name in Society

People in give name to other people name to distinguish them from other people and according to the UN treaty, every child born on earth deserve a right to name. William Shakespeare wrote this on one the play of Romeo and Juliet; “A rose by any other name would smell as sweet”. He suggested that name is meaningless. If we change names of the entire entities on earth, it wouldn’t change anything to the entity. They will still be as they were, just with different names.

While the statement is hard to be argued, the reality shows differently. People spend months if not years to figure out what to name their unborn child. This prove that there is something behind name, it is not merely meaningless word.

Definition

There are several definitions of ‘name’ from different dictionary. Oxford defines ‘name’ as a referrer, a word or a combination of words by which a person, place, or thing, a body or class, or any object of thought is designated, called or known. Cambridge define ‘name’ in a much simpler way. Name is the word or words that a person, thing or place is known by. While Meriam Webster put ‘the word or phrase that refers to or that can refer to a specific person.

From those definitions, we can conclude that ‘name’ is a referrer, label, and identifier. It could be word or combination of words by which a person, place, or thing, a body or class, or any object of thought is designated, called, referred to, labeled, and identified.

Name is so much more than that. The word name, actually has many different meanings depending on the context. Here are some meanings of ‘name’ other than what is written above:

  • famous person, as in ‘There are some top names on that list.’
  • reputation, as in ‘The school has gained name of excellence’
  • give name to, as in ‘He decided to name his kid North’
  • give a title, as in ‘Michael Jackson was named The Kind of Pop’
  • specify, as in ‘Name your price!’

there are still so many other definition of the word ‘name’ that we can find in the dictionary. These are just some of them.

Synonym for name

Besides having so many different meanings, name also has a lot of synonyms. Michael Stevens on one of his video entitled Name, points out that even name has name. Here are the synonyms for name:

personal name, last name, surname, cognomen, anthroponym, autonym, nomen, first name, forename, Christian name, given name, nickname, moniker, appellation, epithet, byname, sobriquet, agnomen, hypocorism, pet name, pseudonym, noms de guerre, alias, code name, cover, patronym, matronym, family name, maiden name, married name, birth name, pen name, stage name, nom de plume, anonym, brand, trade name,signature, demonyn, handle, sign, mark, econym, icon, symbol, badge, tag, place name, toponym, label, title, classification, designation, rubric,eponym, common name, genus, denomination

Proper Noun & Proper Name

A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a certain class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).[1] Some proper nouns occur in plural form (optionally or exclusively), and then they refer to groups of entities considered as unique (the Hendersons, the Everglades, the Azores, the Pleiades). Proper nouns can also occur in secondary applications, for example modifying nouns (the Mozart experience; his Azores adventure), or in the role of common nouns (he’s no Pavarotti; a few would-be Napoleons). The detailed definition of the term is problematic and to an extent governed by convention.

A proper name is a noun used in a non-universal function, with or without recognizable current lexical value, of which the potential meaning coincides with and never exceeds its actual meaning, and which is attached as a label to one animate being or an inanimate object (or to more than one in the case of collective names) for the purpose of specific distinction from among a number of like or in some respects similar beings or objects that are either in no manner distinguished from another or, for our interest, not sufficiently distinguished.

Unique Things about Name

Adolph Blaine Charles David Earl Frederick Gerald Hubert Irvin John Kenneth Lloyd Martin Nero Oliver Paul Quincy Randolph Sherman Thomas Uncas Victor William Xerxes Yancy Zeus Wolfe­schlegelstein­hausenberger­dorffvoraltern­waren­gewissenhaft­schaferswessen­schafewaren­wohlgepflege­und­sorgfaltigkeit­beschutzen­von­angreifen­durch­ihrraubgierigfeinde­welche­voraltern­zwolftausend­jahres­vorandieerscheinen­wander­ersteer­dem­enschderraumschiff­gebrauchlicht­als­sein­ursprung­von­kraftgestart­sein­lange­fahrt­hinzwischen­sternartigraum­auf­der­suchenach­diestern­welche­gehabt­bewohnbar­planeten­kreise­drehen­sich­und­wohin­der­neurasse­von­verstandigmen­schlichkeit­konnte­fortplanzen­und­sicher­freuen­anlebens­langlich­freude­und­ruhe­mit­nicht­ein­furcht­vor­angreifen­von­anderer­intelligent­geschopfs­von­hinzwischen­sternartigraum is the longest personal names recorded by Guiness book of record. It belonged to a man born on 24th of February, 1904 in Bergedorf, Germany.

We can name our child anything we like, but in not in all countries. Some countries require parents to submit their name for approval. Some names are banned in some countries. Here are some banned names in different countries around the world:

Talula Does The Hula From Hawaii,twins Fish and Chips,

Sex Fruit

Twisty Poi.

 

James BondHarry Potter

Christmas Day

Rolling Stone

Virgin

Cesarean

Circumcision

RockyMistress

US Navy

Terminator

Hitler

Lady Di

Email

 

TrafficMartian

Rolling Stone

Panties

Illuminated

Private

Sponsorship

 

ScrotumHermione

Batman Pocahontas

Spinach

Burger King

Virgin

Despite so many good names that are officially banned, New Zealand allowed some unusual names like, Violence, Midnight Chardonay, Number 16 Bus Shelter. In Bali, we can easily find funny if not unusual names like, Wayan Nomer, Nengah Lemari, Nyoman Semen, Ketut Koper.

In countries where people use last names, similar names across the country are common. Half of American share 1712 last names. 85% of Chinese share 100 last names, while 96% Vietnamese share 200 last names, 40 % of which is Nguyen.

Function and Meanings of Names in Society

Your name affects your behavior. People prefer words, events, other people and places with the name containing letter similar to the letter in their name. This phenomenon is called the name-letter effect.

Study by Richard Wiseman shows that names influence the behavior of those who bear it. In 1999, Nicholas Christenfeld and his colleagues from the University of California, San Diego, uncovered evidence suggesting that a person’s initials might affect perhaps the most important aspect of their life – the moment of their death. Using a large, computerised database of death certificates, they identified people whose initials formed a positive-sounding word (such as A.C.E., H.U.G. and J.O.Y.), and those that had very negative connotations, like P.I.G., B.U.M. and D.I.E. Using factors such as race, year of death and socio-economic status as controls, the researchers discovered that men with positive initials lived approximately four and a half years longer than average, whereas those with negative initials died about three years early.

He also wrote about ‘alphabetical discrimination’, a phenomenon where people with name start with the beginning of the alphabet, rate themselves more successful than those with name start with the end of the alphabet.

Balinese parents nowadays name their children after Gods, or words combination with positive meaning. For instance, Wisnu, Indra, Baruna and others. The words combination is normally started by su (good), such as Suputra, Subagia, Suarsana, Sudana. They, the parents, do this hoping that the named child would live up to their name. We can say that in this case, name serve functions as a prayer.

There is a saying in Bali about name bearing: baat ngabe adan, which roughly translated to; the name borne is too heavy for the bearer. This shows that Balinese give meanings to the name. If there is no meaning, it’s impossible for a name to have weight. The meaning might not be universal, but if we ask to the person who give the name, there is always a story, if not a meaning behind the name.

Name serve a purpose or a function as an identity in society. The definition of names; a word or a combination of words by which a person, place, or thing, a body or class, or any object of thought is designated, called or known, confirm this. This might not always be true when people with the same name sitting in the same room. We can’t distinguish them from one another. However, we generally distinguish people by their name, and by that name is what we call them with.

Guru Bahasa Inggris Native Speaker VS Orang Indonesia

Guru Bahasa Inggris Lokal Native

Obrolan panjang dengan paman saya selalu bermanfaat. Kemarin sore saya mengunjungi paman saya di gedung Pusat Bahasa STPBI di Gatsu Timur. Kami membahas berbagai macam topik sambil saya menyesuaikan pengaturan di komputer beliau yang jadul tapi awet. Obrolan kami akhirnya sampai pada topik native speaker (of English) sebagai guru di berbagai macam lembaga pelatihan bahasa.

Tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa keberadaan guru bahasa Inggris dari luar negri (native speaker) di dalam sebuah lembaga pelatihan bahasa dapat mendongkrak popularitas lembaga tersebut dengan sangat cepat. Hal ini disebabkan oleh asumsi, persepsi, dan doktrin bahwa native speaker itu mengajar dengan lebih baik ketimbang orang Indonesia. Namun apakah hal ini seratus persen benar?

Ia mulai dengan menunjukkan bahwa pengertian dari ‘native speaker’ (of English) kini agak rancu. Apakah itu native speaker? Siapa sajakah yang dianggap sebagai native speaker?

Dari pencarian di google, saya menemukan bahwa native speaker (of English) itu adalah orang yang menggunakan bahasa Inggris sejak kecil.

Menurut pengertian ini, berarti orang India, Kenya, Philippine, Singapore, Papua Newguenia dan banyak lagi lainnya juga merupakan native speaker. (lihat listnya di sini). Namun apakah orang-orang yang berasal dari negara-negara selain Amerika, Inggris, Australia dan Kanada dianggap native speaker oleh masyarakat kita (yang ingin belajar bahasa Inggris)? Kemungkinan besar, TIDAK!

Orang mau membayar jauh lebih mahal untuk belajar dari native speaker (mari kita panggil some native speaker) daripada orang Indonesia. Mereka menganggap bahwa kualitas pengajaran some native speaker lebih baik daripada orang lokal. Hal ini tentu saja tidak benar karena beberapa hal:

  • menurut dosen sociolinguistic saya di Mahasaraswati Unmas Denpasar, banyak sekali orang Inggris maupun Amerika yang gagal menyebutkan kata ‘that’ ‘think’ ‘thing’ ‘three’ dengan benar sesuai dengan kamus. Hal ini juga telah saya buktikan saat saya bekerja di salah satu diving center. Ada salah satu teman saya yang mengucapkan ‘three’ seperti ‘free’. Berarti, some native speaker belum tentu lebih baik bahasa Inggrisnya ketimbang orang Indonesia.
  • orang Indonesia mengerti dengan budaya Indonesia dan bagaimana anak-anak Indonesia belajar. Jadi orang Indoneisa memiliki skill selain Bahasa Inggris dalam bidang pendidikan, sedangkan some native speaker terkadang hanya berbekal Bahasa dan Nationality mereka.
  • native speaker adalah marketing tool yang mujarab. Jangan sampai terperangkap dalam marketing scheme seperti ini. Sebagai contoh lain, kita sering melihat di iklan bahwa banyak artis yang menggunakan merek HP tertentu. Tapi apakah mereka benar-benar menggunakan HP tersebut? Dengan uang begitu banyak, mereka tentu memilih merek lain yang jelas lebih canggih dan keren.
  • dari sisi nasionalisme, kenapa mengagungkan orang luar? Orang Indonesia juga tidak kalah bagusnya, dan ada yang lebih bagus dari orang luar. Selain itu, saat orang luar menerima gajih, mereka akan menukarkan uang tersebut ke mata uang mereka dan menyimpannya di bank luar negri. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan seretnya perputaran uang di negri sendiri. Mungkin tidak terasa terlalu besar, namun it’s not nothing.

Lebih jauh lagi, saya menemukan artikel dari website yang presumably berlokasi di Inggris yang membandingkan antara guru bahasa Inggris native speaker dengan lokal. Perbandingannya sangat bagus. Mereka menunjukkan sisi positif dari kedua kategori guru.

Keuntungan Guru Native Speakers

  1. Memiliki perasaan natural terhadap bahasa Inggris dan bagaimana menggunakannya di berbagai konteks yang berbeda.
  2. Memiliki pengetahuan tentang latar belakang budaya yang mempengaruhi penggunaan bahasa Inggris.
  3. Mampu menggunakan bahasa Inggris dengan lancar dan tepat sebagai model/contoh bagi para siswa.
  4. Bahasa Inggisnya tidak dipengaruhi oleh aksen asing (bahasa lokal)

Keuntungan Guru Lokal (Non-Native Speakers)

  1. Ia sendiri telah melewati process mempelajari Bahasa Inggris
  2. Mengetahui potensi kesulitan dan solusinya
  3. Merupakan bukti nyata bahwa mempelajari bahasa Inggris hingga tingkat mahir bukanlah hal yang mustahil.
  4. Mengetahui masalah spesifik yang dihadapi oleh pelajar berbahasa Indonesia
  5. Mengetahui latar belakang budaya siswa dan bagaimana hal tersebut mempengaruhi bagaimana mereka belajar.
  6. Jika sempat tinggal di negara berbahasa Inggris, mereka mungkin sadar dan bahkan menelaah persamaan dan perbedaan antara penggunaan Bahasa Inggris dan Bahasa Indonesia. (native speaker jarang yang menelaah ini)
Source : http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/

Jika memang seseorang mampu membayar some native speaker dengan mahal untuk mengajar bahasa Inggris, kenapa tidak membayar orang Indonesia dengan jumlah yang sama? Toh juga kualitas orang Indonesia tidak kalah dari orang luar.

Kalau mau bukti bahwa orang luar terkadang lebih parah daripada orang Indonesia dalam hal bahasa, lihatlah website seperti lamebook.com, notalwaysright, notalwayslearning dan lainnya.

Mari dukung guru Indonesia, tunjukkan nasionalisme kamu.

Ngomong-ngomong, kalau punya pendapat, silahkan diutarakan di kotak komen ya. Jangan lupa di share kalau kamu setuju.

Arti Kata Sine Qua Non

Arti kata sine qua non

Jika kamu mengambil jurusan keguruan di Universitas Mahasaraswati, dan mata kuliah Pengantar Pendidikan diajar oleh Pak I.B Seloka, maka saya asumsikan kamu pernah mendengar istilahsine qua non. Mungkin istilah ini kamu temukan dalam salah satu soal dalam ujian Pengantar Pendidikan. Dan inilah salah satu alasan kamu mencari arti dari sine qua non di internet.

Soal yang dulu saya dapatkan adalah; Jelaskan maksud dari pendidikan merupakan sine qua non bagi manusia. Jika kebetulan kamu mendapatkan soal yang serupa, maka jawaban singkatnya adalah ;Tanpa pendidikan, manusia bukanlah manusia.

Arti kata sine qua non  secara harfiah berarti; tanpa itu bukan. Gabeng sekali ya? Mari saya coba ilustrasikan maksud dari istilah ini dari persepsi saya.

Kamu mungkin pernah mendengar istilah-istilah lain yang mirip dengan sine qua non. Salah satu contohnya adalah ‘Gak ada lo gak rame’ (Tidak ada kamu tidak ramai). Ini maksudnya adalah, sang subjek tetap merasa tidak ‘rame’ kalau tidak ada sang objek. Seberapa ramaipun situasi di mana subjek berada, ia tetap merasa ‘gak rame’ kalau tidak ada sang objek.

Contoh lainnya adalah sepakbola (soccer). Jika kamu menghilangkan gawang dari lapangan sepakbola, maka permainan itu tidak bisa dikatakan sepakbola. Meskipun para pemainnya memainkan bola dengan cara menyepaknya. Gawang adalah hal esensial dalam permainan sepakbola. Maka dari itu, tanpa gawang kita tidak bisa menyebutnya sebagai sepakbola.

Masih banyak lagi contoh yang bisa disebutkan untuk mengilustrasikan arti kata sine qua non. Seperti ;

  • Bukan ke Bali namanya kalau belum sempat ke Pantai Kuta
  • Tanpa kamu aku bukanlah siapa-siapa
  • Upacara bendera tanpa bendera
  • ‘Malam minggu’ tanpa pacar
  • dsb

Jadi bisa disimpulkan bahwa, arti kata sine qua non adalah; sebuah kondisi jika tanpa satu hal maka {sesuatu} itu tidak bisa disebut {sesuatu}.

Saya harap ini bisa memberikan jawaban dari pertanyaan, apakah arti dari sine qua non.

Simple Past Tense dan Past Continuous Tense

Past Tense

Jika dibandingkan dengan bahasa Indonesia, bahasa Inggris sangatlah sulit dimengerti. Hal ini disebabkan oleh tenses, dan peraturan tata bahasa lainnya yang ada dalam bahasa Inggris. Setiap kejadian atau ungkapan akan berbeda bentuknya tergantung kapan hal tersebut terjadi.

Seperti postingan saya sebelumnya tentang present tense dan present continuous, mereka menjelaskan kejadian yang terjadi dalam waktu yang berbeda. Present tense mengunkapkan kejadian yang terjadi berulang-ulang, namun present continuous tensemengunkapkan kejadian yang terjadi kadang-kadang, atau sedang terjadi. Begitu juga halnya dengan simple past tense dan past continuous tense. Tenses ini digunakan untuk menjelaskan kejadian yang terjadi pada masa lampau.

Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kita cukup menambahkan kata sudah atau telah ke dalam kalimat present tanpa mengganti kata kerjanya, maka kita mengerti bahwa kegiatan tersebut terjadi pada waktu lampau. Dalam bahasa Inggris, yang berubah adalah kata kerjanya.  Perubahan kata kerja inilah yang seringkali membuat saya dan mungkin pembelajar bahasa Inggris lainnya bingung. Kebingungan ini disebabkan oleh dua jenis perubahan kata kerja, yaitu regular verbs, dan irregular verbs.

Regular verbs adalah kata kerja yang berubah bentuknya dengan menambahkan ed di akhir kata. Misalnya, clean; jika ingin menggunakannya dalam past tense, maka kata kerja tersebut berubah menjadi cleaned. Sedangkan irregular verbs sedikit lebih rumit. Dari istilahnya saja bisa dilihat bahwa perubahan kata kerja ini tidak beraturan (irregular). Salah satu contohnya adalah drink; jika ingin menggunakannya dalam past tense, maka kata drink berubah menjadi drank. Contoh lain adalah read; kata ini tidak berubah bentuknya, meski digunakan dalam tenses manapun. Hanya saja, jika menggunakannya dalam past tense cara pengucapannya berubah menjadi (red), dengan penulisan yang sama.

Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikanlah pembahasan berikut;

Simple Past Tense

Simple past tense digunakan untuk kejadian yang terjadi dan telah usai pada waktu lampau. Sedikit mirip dengan present perfect namun kedua tenses ini memiliki perbedaan yang cukup signifikan. Namun saya tidak akan membahasnya dalam postingan ini. Semoga saya bisa melanjutkannya dipostingan lain. Jika kamu menulis text recount, dan narrative, kamu akan banyak menggunakan simple past tense maupun past continuous tense.

It happened very quickly. I didn’t have a chance to see it. The car crashed into the tree.

Meskipun tidak ada keterangan waktu, kalimat-kalimat di atas jelas memaparkan bahwa semua itu terjadi pada masa lampau.

Bentuk kalimat simple past tense

Positif (verbal)

Seperti yang telah saya tulis di atas, bentuk regular past tense mengandung kata kerja yang ditambahkan dengan ed. Bentuknya seperti ini;

S + V2 (perubahan kata kerja bentuk ke-2)

I jumped.

Simpel bukan? Memang sangat sederhana. Namun pada bentuk irregular past tense pembentukan kalimatnya menjadi agak sedikit susah. Kenapa? Karena kita harus mengetahui perubahan bentuk ke-2 dari kata kerja yang kita gunakan. Bentuknya sama saja;

S + V2

She taught me to swim.

Kata taught merupakan perubahan bentuk ke-2 dari teach. Satu-satunya cara untuk mengetahui semua irregular verb dalam bahasa Inggris adalah dengan menghapalkannya dan menggunakannya terus menerus. Untuk mengetahui daftar perubahan kata kerja, kamu bisa melihat di kamus, biasanya ada di bagian tengah.

Perlu di ingat bahwasanya dalam past tense kata kerja tidak perlu lagi ditambahkan s atau es, meskipun subjeknya adalah kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal.

Positif (nominal)

Untuk kalimat nominal dalam past tense pemahamannya agak lebih mudah karena yang perlu kita hafal hanya perubahan to be saja. To be ; Is dan am berubah bentuk menjadi was, sedangkan are berubah bentuk menjadi were.

I/he/she/it + was | I/he/she/it was right.
You/they/we + were | You/they/we were right.

Negatif dan Interogatif

Kita menggunakan did dalam bentuk netatif dan interogatif, meskipun subjeknya adalah kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal. Jadi, dodan does, keduanya berubah menjadi did dalam kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya.

verbal

I/you/they/we/he/she/it + did not (didn’t) sleep. (-)

Did + I/you/they/we/he/she/it sleep? (?)

nominal

I/he/she/it + was not (wasn’t) happy. (-)

you/they/we + were no (weren’t) happy. (-)

Was I/he/she/it happy? (?)

Were you/they/we happy? (?)

Past Continuous

Past continuous digunakan untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau. Menurut dosen saya, past continuous digunakan untuk menjelaskan kegiatan yang terjadi pada masa lampau di waktu yang spesifik.

Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihatlah contoh berikut;

Rima : I rang at about three yesterday afternoon, but you weren’t in. I didn’t know where you were.
Andi : Oh, I was helping my father. We were building a table. It took ages. We were working on it all afternoon.
Rima : It was raining. I hope you weren’t doing it outside.
Andi : No, we were in the garage. So I didn’t get wet. But I’m afraid I got glue all over my new shirt.
Rima : Why were you wearing your new shirt to build a table? 
Andi : I don’t know. I forgot I had it on.

Rima berkata It was raining, maksudnya adalah saat dia menelpon (sekitar jam 3) hujan sedang turun. Hujan mulai turun sebelum jam 3 dan berhenti setelah jam 3. We were working on it all afternoon, berarti kegiatan tersebut berlangsung sepanjang siang. Andi menekankan lama waktu pengerjaan meja.

Untuk action verbs kita menggunakan past continuous, sedangkan state verbs kita menggunakan  simple past tense. 

Bentuk kalimat past continuous

positif

I/he/she/it + was + verb-ing | I/he/she/it was crying all morning.
You/they/we + were + verb-ing | You/they/we were wearing the same pants.

Sama seperti present continuous, bentuk kalimat past continuous hanya ada dalam kalimat nominal. Artinya, jika kamu ingin membuat kalimat past continuous, maka pasti ada to be (was, were) dalam kalimat tersebut.

interogatif

Was + I/he/she/ it + verb-ing ? | Was I/he/she/it falling?
Were + you/they/we + verb-ing?| Were you/they/we reading it?

negatif

I/he/she/it +was not (wasn’t) + verb-ing. | I/he/she/it was not (wasn’t) falling.
You/they/we + were not (weren’t) + verb-ing. | You/they/we were not (weren’t) reading it.

Simple past tense atau past continuous?

Kapan kita menggunakan simple past tense dan kapan kita menggunakan past continuous?

Simple past tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang telah usai di waktu lampau. Sedangkan past continuous digunakan untuk menjelaskan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di waktu lampau.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE PAST CONTINUOUS
We drove home. (perjalanan telah usai)  We were driving home. (perjalanan belum usai waktu itu)
It fell down. (objek telah mencapai tujuan)  It was falling down. (objek masih berada di udara waktu itu)
 I cleaned the car. (mobilnya sudah bersih sekarang)
 I was cleaning the car. (masih mencuci mobil waktu itu)

Past continuous sering digunakan bersamaan dengan simple past tense saat menjelaskan sebuah kejadian terjadi (kejadian pendek)  saat kejadian lain sedang berlangsung (kejadian yang lebih panjang).

We were playing video game when mom called.

Playing video game merupakan kejadian yang berlangsung lebih lama ketimbang mom called, atau Mom called saat mereka sedang playing video game.

Waktu disekolah saya diajari seperti ini:

Jika menjelaskan dua kejadian yang terjadi di masa lampau, salah satu clausanya harus diubah menjadi bentuk past-ing. 

Pantas saja saya sering kebingungan. Penjelasan ini sepertinya mudah dicerna, namun seringkali mengakibatkan kekeliruan pada pengaplikasiannya. Hal ini disebabkan karena saya tidak tahu clausa yang mana yang harus saya ganti bentuknya menjadi bentuk past-ing (past continuous). Sekarang masih bingung? Yup! Masih dikit dikit, namanya juga masih belajar :)

Kita menggunakan dua simple past tense untuk menjelaskan kejadian yang terjadi secara beruntun di waktu lampau.

The rain stopped, I continued my journey.

Setelah hujan berhenti, aku melanjutkan perjalannku.

Past continuous juga sering digunakan untuk menjelaskan background, sedangkan simple past tense digunakan untuk kegiatan yang terjadi dalam cerita tersebut.

The sun was shining so brightly. (past continuous)
We arrived on the beach. (simple past tense)

So, apakah sudah mengerti tentang bagaimana dan kapan menggunakan simple past tense dan past continuous? Maaf jika penjelasan saya kurang jelas, saya juga masih belajar. Jika ada pertanyaan, silahkan dilayangkan lewat kolom komen di bawah postingan ini. Jangan lupa di share ya :)

Present Simple dan Continuous

Simple Present

Waktu saya bekerja sebagai sales dulu, saya seringkali mendengar teman kerja saya berkata ‘You can bringing 2 bottle sir.’ Saya yakin tamu-tamu asing mampu memahami maksud teman saya ini. Namun secara grammatical kalimat ini mengandung error. Jika ingin menguasai bahasa Inggris seorang pembelajar harus menguasai grammar bahasa Inggris, ini merupakan harga mati. Bisa saja tanpa mengerti grammar seseorang dapat berkomunikasi menggunakan bahasa Inggris, namun tidak akan sebagus mereka yang menguasai grammarnya. Salah satu bagian dari grammar bahasa Inggris adalah tenses. Kali ini, saya akan mencoba mengupas tentang present simple dan present continuous.

Di SMA, saya diajarkan present simple, present continuous, maupun tenses lainnya dengan rumus. Ini adalah salah satu hambatan bagi saya untuk menguasai tenses. Saya tidak suka rumus! Setelah saya membaca buku dan menjelajahi internet, barulah saya mampu menguasai beberapa tenses dalam bahasa Inggris. Hal ini dikarenakan penjelasan di buku yang saya baca dan internet, diawali dengan fungsi dari tenses tersebut bukan rumusnya. Oleh karena itu, saya akan menjelaskan fungsi dari tenses-tenses ini.

Present simple

Present simple digunakan untuk mengutarakan beberapa hal, diantaranya:

Perasaan dan pikiran : I feel good. I think you are right.
Kegiatan yang berulang-ulang (habit) : She goes to school by bus.
Kondisi atau situasi, Fakta, hal yang benar untuk waktu yang lama:The sun rises at the east.
Digunakan dalam prase I promise, I agree etc : I promise I’ll marry you. I agree to come with you.
Pertanyaan negative untuk menyampaikan saran : Why don’t you come?
Kegiatan atau even yang telah direncanakan dalam waktu dekat : The train leaves at 8 o’clock. 

Bentuk kalimat present simple

positif

I/you/we/they + verb | I/you/we/they get (verbal)
he/she/it +verb+s/es | he/she/it gets (verbal)

I + am + complement | I am a doctor (nominal)
You/they/we + are + complement | You/they/we are a doctor (nominal)
He/she/it + is + complement | He/she/it is correct. (nominal)

Dalam present simple, subjek I, you, they, we dan plural subject kata kerjanya tidak mendapatkan akhiran maupun es. 

I come from Singaraja.
We always go to school by bike.
Most men like football.
You know you want it.
They love to see you dance.

Namun untuk subjek he, she, it dan singular subject kata kerjanya mendapatkan akhiran maupun es, tergantung huruf terakhir kata kerja yang digunakan.

It gets better.
She always goes to school by bike.
He plays football every Sunday evening.
Mira’s friend rides bike.

Bentuk kalimat tanya dan negatif

TANYA NEGATIF
 do I/you/they/we  get?  I/you/they/we do not atau don’t get
 does he/she/it get? he/she/it does not atau doesn’t get

Kita menggunakan bentuk do dan do not dalam bentuk kalimat tanya dan negatif, namun untuk kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal kita menggunakan does dan does not.

Do you eat pork?          I do not atau don’t eat pork
Does she eat pork?      She does not atau doesn’t eat pork

Kata kerja (verb) untuk kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal dalam bentuk kalimat tanya dan negatif, tidak lagi mendapatkan akhiran s maupun es. Seperti contoh diatas, kata kerja eat tidak mendapatkan akhiran s.

Does she eats pork?  dan She doesn’t eats porkmerupakan kalimat yang mengandung grammatical error.

Present Continuous

Present continuous digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kegiatan yang sedang terjadi.

I am writing this post.

Kita juga bisa menggunakan present continuous untuk mengungkapkan bahwa kita sedang dalam proses mengerjakan sesuatu, namun kita tidak sedang melakukannya saat mengunkapkannya.

I am reading a very interesting book. I will let you borrow it when I am finish.

Dalam kalimat diatas subjek tidak sedang membaca buku tersebut saat mengatakannya, namun ia sedang dalam proses menyelesaikan membaca buku tersebut.

Present continuous bisa juga digunakan untuk mengungkapkan hal yang berganti dalam periode yang lama.

I am getting older.
The number of motorbikes on the road is increasing.

Bentuk kalimat present continuous

positif

Subject + to be + verb-ing

I + am + verb-ing | I am writing this post.
You/they/we + are + verb-ing | You/they/we are reading this post.
He/she/it + is + verb-ing | He/she/it/ is leaving the house.

interogatif

to be + subject + verb-ing?

Am I writing?
Are you/they/we reading?
Is he/she/it leaving?

negatif

Subject + to be + not + verb-ing.

I am not writing.
You/they/we are not (aren’t) reading.
He/she/it is not (isn’t) leaving.

Present simple atau present continuous?

I am writing a blog post right now.

Dalam kalimat ini saya mengatakan bahwa saya menulis postingan blog, dan ini berarti bahwa saya belum selesai menulisnya. Dengan kata lain, saya sedang menulis postingan blog.

I write blog posts.

Kalimat ini menunjukkan bahwa saya menulis postingan blog secara berkesinambungan. Untuk situasi seperti ini, kita menggunakan present simple.

SIMPLE CONTINUOUS
 It always rains at the weekend.  It’s raining at the moment
 I play football most weekend I am playing football right now.

Temporary atau permanen?

Kita menggunakan present continuous untuk situasi yang terjadi secara temporary.

I am working at Julia inn as a front officer for two weeks.
They are hiring an IT guy to fix the network problem in our office.

Sedangkan untuk situasi yang permanen, kita menggunakan present simple.

I work at Julia inn as a front officer.
They hire a new IT guy.

Always

Kata always dapat digunakan dalam present continuous maupun present simple. Bedanya adalah dalam hal frekuensi sebuah kegiatan itu dilakukan. Jika always digunakan dalam present continuous, maka kegiatan tersebut seringkali dilakukan, namun tidak selalu. Sedangkan jika digunakan dalam present simple, maka kegiatan tersebut dilakukan selalu.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

He is always forgetting his bag.

I am always thinking about you.

PRESENT SIMPLE

Tom always invite us to stay at Christmas.

I always go to school by bus.

Mahir menggunakan present simple dan present continuous akan membantu kita untuk memahami tenses-tenses yang lebih sulit. Kedua tenses ini merupakan tenses yang paling dasar.

Semoga penjelasan ini dapat membantu kamu untuk memahami present simple dan present continuous. Jika ada yang belum saya sampaikan, tinggalkan komentar anda di bawah.

State verbs dan action verbs Grammar Bahasa Inggris

State and Action Verbs

Pernahkah kamu mendengar tentang state verbs dan action verbs? Terus terang saja, saya baru mengetahui tentang istilah ini setelah membaca buku Oxford Practice Grammar karya John Eastwood. Mungkin saja kita sudah sering menggunakannya, medengarnya dan membacanya, hanya saja kita tidak pernah memikirkan tentang definisinya.

State verbs adalah verb yang menyatakan sebuah situasi (status), sedangkan action verbs menyatakan tentang kegiatan (action).

Kata clean dalam kalimat;

The flat is clean

merupakan states. Namun jika digunakan dalam kalimat,

I’m cleaning the flat

merupakan action.

Mari kita lihat lebih lanjut dalam contoh kalimat berikut ini;

States

The farmer owns the land

The box contained old books

State verbs biasanya tidak ada dalam bentuk present continuous.

Actions

The farmer is buying the land.
He puts the books in the box.

Action verbs bisa dalam bentuk present continuous maupun present simple.

Berikut adalah beberapa state verbs:

be, believe, belong, consist of, contain, depend on, deserve, exist, hate, know, like, love, matter, mean, own, need, prefer, remmember, resemble, seem, understand.

I think/I’m thinking dll.

Kadang-kadang kita bisa menggunakan sebuah kata kerja (verb) untuk state maupun untuk action.

STATES (simple tense) ACTIONS (simple maupun continuous)
 I think you’re wrong. (Believe)  I am thinking about it.
We have three kids. (Own)  We are having dinner.
 I come from Singaraja. (Origin)  I am coming from Singaraja.I usually come on the plane.
 I see what you mean. (Understand)  Dito is seeing Ross.
 She looks nice. (Seems)  He is looking at you.
 She appears very smart. (Seems)  She appeared/was appearing in a movie.
 The bag weighed five kilos. (Weigh)  They weighed/were weighing my bag

Kalimat yang menggunakan to be (is, am, are) mengungkapkan perilaku seseorang.

Kualitas Permanen

Andrew is nice. (Ini berarti Andrew selalu baik.)

Kualitas Temporary

Andrew is being nice today. (Ini berarti Andrew baik sikapnya hari ini saja.)

Ingat! Kita hanya menggunakan to be (is, am, are, being) untuk mengungkapkan perilaku, maupun keadaan seseorang, bukan hal lain.

Are you okay?
She is fine.

I’m better now.

I like/I’m liking dll.

Kita bisa menggunakan state verbs untuk mengungkapkan suatu keadaan maupun perasaan yang ada dalam jangka waktu pendek.

Status Permanen Status Temporary
 I like playing games.  I am liking this game.
 I enjoy parties.   I am enjoying this party.
 I love movies.  I am loving this movie.

Terlepas dari semua peraturan dan tatanan dalam bahasa Inggris, pasti saja ada pengecualian. Dalam state verbs dan action verbs, kita bisa menggunakan simple present maupun present continuous dengan arti yang sama sekali sama.

You look well dan You are looking well.
I feel good dan I am feeling good.

State verbs dan action verbs terlihat sangat trivial dalam mempelajari bahasa Inggris. Namun tetap saja, menguasai bahasa Inggris akan lebih mudah jika kita mengetahui hal-hal kecil seperti ini. Pernah dengar gak bagaimana seseorang bisa memakan gajah? Mungkin tidak benar-benar gajah yang dimakan, ini hanya merupakan analogi saja. Jadi dalam menaklukan sesuatu yang besar, dimulai dengan langkah kecil. Jika kamu sudah memahami tentang state verbs dan action verbs, maka kamu baru saja mengambil satu langkah kecil menuju mahir berbahasa Inggris. Begitu juga dengan saya.

Struktur Kalimat Bahasa Inggris

struktur-kalimatSama seperti kalimat dalam bahasa lainnya, kalimat bahasa Inggris pun di susun dari beberapa elemen dasar seperti subjek, kata kerja , objek, pelengkap, dan kata keterangan. Struktur kalimat bahasa Inggris mirip dengan struktur kalimat Bahasa Indonesia, hal ini memudahkan pembelajar bahasa Inggris untuk memahami struktur kalimat bahasa Inggris.

Pada dasarnya, kalimat bahasa Inggris dapat dibagi menjadi dua; kalimat verbal dan kalimat nominal. Kalimat verbal adalah kalimat yang mengandung kata kerja (verb), sedangkan kalimat nominal merupakan kalimat yang tidak mengandung kata kerja. Oleh karena kalimat nominal tidak mengandung kata kerja (simpelnya) kalimat nominal memerlukan kata kerja bantu (to be – is, am, are). 

Contoh:

1. I clean the car (kalimat verbal)

2. I am dirty now (kalimat nominal)

Kalimat (sentences) didefinisikan sebagai kumpulan kata yang lengkap, khususnya mengandung subjek dan predikat , mengutarakan pernyataan, pertanyaan, seruan maupun perintah dan mengandung satu kalausa inti, terkadang lebih dari satu klausa anak. (oxford dictionary).

Sebuah kalimat bahasa Inggris minimal mengandung subjek dan predikat seperti contoh berikut ini;

I jump.

S    V

Seperti kamu ketahui, kalimat bahasa Inggris tidak hanya seperti contoh yang di atas. Ada banyak struktur kalimat yang bisa kita bentuk dalam bahasa Inggris seperti;

Subject Verb Object
 I  love  you
 She is cleaning the house

Subjek dan objek dapat merupakan pronoun/kata ganti orang (I, she), maupun noun phrase / prase (the house)

Subject Verb Complement
 The house  is  big.
 It was a huge mistake

Complement / pelengkap dapat merupakan adjective / kata sifat (big), maupun noun phrase / prase (a huge mistake)

Subject Verb Adverbial
 The book  is  on the couch
 We went outside

Adverbial / kata keterangan dapat merupakan kata keterangan / adverb (outside), maupun prepositional phrase / prase kata depan (on the couch)

Subject Verb Object Object
 She  is giving  me flowers
 Andrew bought her a present

Kita menggunakan dua objek setelah kata kerja / verb give, send, buy dsb.

Semua struktur kalimat di atas dapat ditambahkan dengan adverb / kata keterangan.

SV : I jump quickly.
SVO : I love you very much.
SVC : The house is very big
SVA : Fortunately, we went outside.
SVOO : Surprisingly, Andrew bought her a present.

Latihan mengenali bagian dari kalimat, apakah itu objek, subjek, adverbial, atau complement?

Wira and Mira are on holiday. They have sent a letter to Ayu and Raka.

Tentukanlah bagian kalimat dari kata maupun prase yang digarisbawahi berikut ini;

1. We are having a great timeobject
2. The people are friendly. subject
3. We really love cycling here. verb
4. It’s great experiencecomplement
5. We’re on a paddy-fieldsadverb
6. We love this placeobject
7. The view is gorgeouscomplement